ESTABLISHING NEW POPULATIONS TO CONSERVE ENDANGERED SPECIES


INTRODUCTION

Many endangered species are at verge of extinction, many conservation biologists are developing strategies or approaches to save these species. These approaches involve increasing size of existing population and establishing new wild or semi wild populations of rare species. These approaches allow the species living in captivity or in small isolated populations. The populations that are widely spread are less destroyed by events such as earthquakes, hurricanes, disease, epidemics). By increasing the population the chances of extinction reduces.
Establishment of new populations decline the original wild species of that area. For example a brown snake specie was introduced in Pacific Island where birds species already existed. Birds species were eliminated by the predation of snake. This was not a good reestablishment practice. Either snake species should be introduced into other island or birds species nests should be protected from snakes or birds species should be introduces into other islands. 

APPROACHES FOR ESTABLISHING NEW POPULATIONS

Three approaches are used to establish the new populations of animals and plants. These are as follows:
  • Reintroduction Program
  • Augmentation Program
  • Introduction Program
REINTRODUCTION PROGRAM

The reintroduction involves the releasing captive bred and wild collected animals in the areas that are in their historic range and where no species no longer existed. 
The main objective of reintroduction program is to provide new environment in original environment to species. For example reintroduction of grey wolves in Yellowstone National Park with the aim  to maintain the equilibrium of predators and herbivores existed in that habitat already. The individuals were released near the site where their ancestors lived and adapted to genetic modification or elsewhere within the range of species where new protected habitat is produced.
Reintroduction can also be termed as reestablishment, restoration or translocation. 

AUGMENTATION PROGRAM

It deals with releasing the individuals in the existing population to increase the size of population and to enhance gene pool. The individuals that are released may be captive bred or wild collected.

INTRODUCTION PROGRAM

It involves introducing the animals and plants to the areas that are outside their historic range. This approach is used in the case when existing habitat is destroyed to the level where species could no longer survive there and reintroduction program could not be possible there. These also may be captive bred or wild collected.
Care must be taken while introducing the species so that species does not damage the existing ecosystem or harm the population. Care must be taken so that introduced species could not acquire the diseases while in captivity. Species may also adapt genetically to its new environment. 


ESTABLISHING NEW POPULATIONS TO CONSERVE ENDANGERED SPECIES ESTABLISHING NEW POPULATIONS TO CONSERVE ENDANGERED SPECIES Reviewed by Admin on June 28, 2016 Rating: 5
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