Environmental Pollution and its Types


Before describing environmental pollution let's describe what is environment? Environment is defined as all physical and biological systems that surrounds all the organisms including man and all other factors that influence on these organisms. Environment includes both biotic (living) and abiotic (non living) components. Any change in the environment caused by any unwanted substance, impurity or in other words contaminants is called pollution. Environmental pollution is a becoming a serious concern all over the world causing the damage to the earth. It is a problem both in developing and developed countries. 


The major factors that contribute towards environmental pollution are Population growth and urbanization. Urban population is increasing day by day. Rural population is also moving towards urban areas because of the facilities of urban areas. Therefore population of cities is increasing that leads to the high energy demands of people. To fulfill these energy demands more technologies are emerging and natural resources are  being exploited by the people. The demands of the people for energy are exceeding the carrying capacity of earth. Carrying capacity of earth is defined as the capacity of the earth to accommodate the demands of the humans for living on the earth. 


There are some basic types of environmental pollution discussed here.
  • Water pollution
  • Air pollution
  • Soil pollution
  • Noise pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, streams, rivers and groundwater through water pollutants.

Cause: The water pollutants that are responsible for water pollution are herbicides, insecticides, volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, chemical waste and others.
Humans and industrial activities are responsible for water pollution. Humans throw their garbage and other waste in water and pollute it. Industries dump their harmful waste into water bodies and pollute the water. 

Effect: Water pollution affect on water life that exist in water bodies such as fishes. Fishes intake that polluted water and suffer from diseases and mostly die. Acid Rain also contribute to water pollution. where acid rain falls it causes damage to buildings and humans.


Air pollution is dangerous type of pollution causing serious health concerns in humans.

Cause: It is caused by harmful smoke such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide etc emitted from transport vehicles and factories. Smoke from cigarette and burning of leaves is also very harmful.

Effect: Different health diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, breathing problems, headache and allergies arises in humans. Flora, fauna and migratory birds are also affected by air pollution badly.


Soil pollution is concerned with soil degradation or its alteration by human made chemicals or some natural processes.

Cause: Soil is being contaminated by herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers, polluted water and acid rain etc. 

Effect: Soil pollution leads to health disorders in humans and ecosystem effects. Humans are in direct contact with soil through inhalation and it may cause serious health concerns. When polluted water is given to the fields it harms the crop yield and food is affected. Excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers also harms the field. 


Noise is a unwanted sound that disturbed or irritate able to listen by human ear. 

Cause: It is caused by noise of horns by vehicles, loudspeakers, industries noise. The 90 % noise pollution is caused by motor vehicles.

Effect: It affect the human hearing. Headache is common problem from noise pollution in humans. 

Environmental Pollution and its Types Environmental Pollution and its Types Reviewed by Admin on June 09, 2016 Rating: 5
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